The Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences has a strong and energetic research culture. In the RAE2008, a proportion of the Department’s research was considered to be “world-leading” and other esteem indicator scores designated 70% of staff submitted to the Sports-Related studies Unit of Assessment as being “ internationally excellent” or “world leading”. Its research activity can be divided into two distinct groups – Sociology of Sport and Exercise and Applied Sport and Exercise Sciences – which focus on advancing knowledge through high quality research that is of benefit to numerous recipients as a consequence of its impact on the exercising and sporting populations, society, public policy, culture and quality of life. Staff and postgraduate research is positively developed in an energetic environment which provides the opportunity to disseminate and discuss research through Department research seminars. This facilitates an interdisciplinary approach to a number of research questions which have evolved from identified real life problems.

Recent Submissions

  • A formative investigation assessing menstrual health literacy in professional women’s football

    Anderson, Rosie; Rollo, Ian; Randall, Rebecca; Martin, Daniel; Twist, Craig; Grazette, Neval; Moss, Samantha; University of Chester; Gatorade Sports Science Institute; University of Lincoln; Liverpool John Moores University (Taylor & Francis, 2023-12-11)
    The aim of this study was to assess and compare menstrual health literacy in professional women’s football. A three-section questionnaire was completed by professional players (n = 25), development players (n = 22) and staff (n = 19). The mean total knowledge score (out of 19) was lower for development players (5.4 ± 2.9) than professional players (7.8 ± 3.2) and staff (9.1 ± 4.8) (p < 0.001). No group achieved >50% correct answers. For each group, knowledge of the menstrual cycle (MC) was greater than knowledge of hormonal contraceptives (HC) (p < 0.001). Previous MC and HC education did not correspond to higher knowledge scores in professional players (p = 0.823) or development players (p = 0.274). In professional and development players, comfort of communication was influenced by the sex of whom they were communicating with (p < 0.001), with a preference for females. In conclusion, results from the present study suggest refined education strategies and new approaches are required for both players and staff to improve menstrual health literacy in professional women’s football.
  • Effect of movement‐evoked and tonic experimental pain on muscle force production

    Cabral, Hélio V.; Devecchi, Valter; Oxendale, Chelsea; Jenkinson, Ned; Falla, Deborah; Gallina, Alessio; University of Birmingham; Università degli Studi di Brescia; University of Chester (Wiley, 2023-10-06)
    Introduction: When performing an exercise or a functional test, pain that is evoked by movement or muscle contraction could be a stronger stimulus for changing how individuals move compared to tonic pain. We investigated whether the decrease in muscle force production is larger when experimentally‐induced knee pain is directly associated to the torque produced (movement‐evoked) compared to a constant painful stimulation (tonic). Methods: Twenty‐one participants performed three isometric knee extension maximal voluntary contractions without pain (baseline), during pain, and after pain. Knee pain was induced using sinusoidal electrical stimuli at 10 Hz over the infrapatellar fat pad, applied continuously or modulated proportionally to the knee extension torque. Peak torque and contraction duration were averaged across repetitions and normalized to baseline. Results: During tonic pain, participants reported lower pain intensity during the contraction than at rest (p < 0.001), whereas pain intensity increased with contraction during movement‐evoked pain (p < 0.001). Knee extension torque decreased during both pain conditions (p < 0.001), but a larger reduction was observed during movement‐evoked compared to tonic pain (p < 0.001). Participants produced torque for longer during tonic compared to movement‐evoked pain (p = 0.005). Conclusion: Our results indicate that movement‐evoked pain was a more potent stimulus to reduce knee extension torque than tonic pain. The longer contraction time observed during tonic pain may be a result of a lower perceived pain intensity during muscle contraction. Overall, our results suggest different motor adaptation to tonic and movement‐evoked pain and support the notion that motor adaptation to pain is a purposeful strategy to limit pain. This mechanistic evidence suggests that individuals experiencing prevalently tonic or movement‐evoked pain may exhibit different motor adaptations, which may be important for exercise prescription.
  • It’s about inspiring the greater community to continue supporting this sector: Elite sport success as a main policy objective for disability sport promotion in ASEAN member states

    Nagata, Shinichi; Bloyce, Daniel; Sato, Takahiro; Okade, Yoshinori; University of Tsukuba; University of Chester; Nippon Sport Science University (Taylor & Francis, 2023-08-27)
    Promoting sport participation among people with disabilities is often counted as one of the policy priorities of the national government as well as a main activity of sport for development initiatives to aid the Global South. However, little is known about specific systems, policy, history, and plans for disability sport promotion understood by disability sport administrators in the Global South. The current study focused on the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) and aimed to explore how ASEAN government officials perceive the status of sport for people with disabilities. Representatives from nine ASEAN member countries participated in individual semi-structured interviews. The results of thematic analysis generated three themes: (1) Perceived lack of disability awareness and disability sport recognition; (2) Elite sport successes address problems at hand; and (3) Elite sport success to motivate funders. These themes suggest that successes in elite sports are of central importance for sport promotion among people with disabilities in ASEAN countries because they perceive that elite sport success can raise disability awareness, popularise disability sport, and motivate funders. Also, Paralympic success is viewed as an opportunity for them to demonstrate success otherwise unattainable in the Olympics. Some of the participants’ accounts appear to go against the current knowledge generated in the Global North; however, as funding is important to develop disability sport administration, it might be inevitable for them to continue promoting elite sport success for now.
  • The Effects of an Acute Dose of New Zealand Blackcurrant Extract on 5-km Running Performance

    Moss, Samantha; Brindley, Edward; Enright, Kevin; Highton, Jamie; Bott, Richard; University of Chester; Liverpool John Moores University (Human Kinetics, 2023-08-30)
    This study investigated the effects of an acute dose (900 mg) of New Zealand Blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on 5 km running performance, alongside associated physiological and metabolic responses. Sixteen trained male runners (age 26 ± 5 years, stature 173.4 ± 7.3 cm, body mass, 73.7 ± 6.9 kg, V̇O2max 55.4 ± 6.1 ingested either capsules containing NZBC extract (3 x 300 mg CurraNZTM, 315 mg anthocyanins) or a matched placebo (3 x 300 mg gluten free flour) 2 hours before exercise in a double-blind, randomised, crossover design. Performance time, physiological, and metabolic responses were assessed in a 5-km time-trial, preceded by 10 min exercise at the lactate threshold on a treadmill. NZBC extract did not alter the physiological or metabolic responses to exercise at the lactate threshold (V̇O2, RER, V̇E, carbohydrate oxidation, fat oxidation, heart rate, blood lactate or Rating of Perceived Exertion, P>0.05). The 5-km time-trial was completed in a faster time in the NZBC extract condition compared to placebo (NZBC: 1308.96 ± 122.36 s, Placebo: 1346.33 ± 124.44, P=0.001, d=-0.23, CI range=-0.46 to 0.00 s). No differences in physiological or metabolic responses were apparent between conditions for the 5-km time-trial (P>0.05). Ingesting 900 mg of NZBC extract as an acute dose improves performance in trained male runners without altering physiological or metabolic responses to exercise. Further research is needed to assess a wider range of possible mechanisms (e.g., cardiovascular function, metabolite profiles) to advance insight into improved performance following supplementation.
  • A dynamic model of the bi-exponential reconstitution and expenditure of W′ in trained cyclists

    Chorley, Alan; Marwood, Simon; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester; Liverpool Hope University (Taylor & Francis, 2023-07-20)
    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different recovery power outputs on the reconstitution of W′ and to develop a dynamic bi-exponential model of W′ during depletion and reconstitution. Ten trained cyclists (mass 71.7 ± 8.4 kg; V̇O2max 60.0 ± 6.3 ml·kg-1·min-1) completed three incremental ramps (20 W·min-1) to the limit of tolerance on each of six occasions with recovery durations of 30 s and 240 s. Recovery power outputs varied between 50 W (LOW); 60% of critical power (CP) (MOD) and 85% of CP (HVY). W′ reconstitution was measured following each recovery and fitted to a bi-exponential model. Amplitude and time constant (τ) parameters were then determined via regression analysis accounting for relative intensity and duration to produce a dynamic model of W′. W′ reconstitution slowed disproportionately as recovery power output increased (p < 0.001) and increased with recovery duration (p < 0.001). The amplitudes of each recovery component were strongly correlated to W′ reconstitution after 240 s at HVY (r = 0.95), whilst τ parameters were found to be related to the fractional difference between recovery power and CP. The predictive capacity of the resultant model was assessed against experimental data with no differences found between predicted and experimental values of W′ reconstitution (p > 0.05). The dynamic bi-exponential model of W′ accounting for varying recovery intensities closely described W′ kinetics in trained cyclists facilitating real-time decisions about pacing and tactics during competition. The model can be customised for individuals from known CP and W′ and a single additional test session.
  • ‘Now we have gym, now we have to perform’: Norwegian students’ perceptions of assessment and grading in physical education

    Green, Ken; Røset, Linda; Sigurjonsson, Thorsteinn; Tjomsland, Hege; Cale, Lorraine; Thurston, Miranda; Inland University of Applied Sciences; University of Chester; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences; Loughborough University (SAGE Publications, 2023-05-25)
    Assessment has become a routine feature of school life, internationally. Little is known, however, about the consequences for young people of assessment and grading in physical education (PE) – a subject often associated with physical recreation. This paper explores young Norwegian’s perceptions of assessment and grading in PE from a sociological perspective. In doing so, it contemplates the penetration of neo-liberal discourses as part of wider processes of globalization and Europeanization in school PE in Norway. The study utilizes data generated by 31 focus groups involving 148 youngsters from the 10th grade (15–16-year-olds) in eight purposively sampled secondary schools in Norway. Norwegian PE teachers continue to use tests in order to set grades in PE. The upshot is that students’ enjoyment of and engagement in PE, as well as their self-identities and self-esteem, can be compromised by apprehension towards assessment and grading. These processes seem likely to undermine or even erode the potential sociopsychological benefits of PE for some young people by reinforcing the impression that the subject is fast becoming just one more outcome-oriented subject on an academic treadmill. In this regard, the ascendancy of neo-liberalism – associated with the twin challenges of globalisation and European integration – appears to merely reinforce the hegemony of competitive individualism within PE in Norway, as elsewhere.
  • Physical Education Teachers on Physical Education: A Sociological Study of Philosophies and Ideologies

    Green, Ken; University of Chester (Chester Academic Press, 2003-06-30)
    This book discusses the results of a research study undertaken in the North West of England in the late 1990s, in which 35 practising PE secondary school teachers were interviewed about the nature of their subject. Their responses are analysed in terms of the theories of figurational sociology of Norbert Elias.
  • Effects of athletic socks with high frictional properties on in-shoe foot sliding and performance in football-specific movements

    Friedl, Felix; Smith, Grace; Lamb, Kevin L.; Worsfold, Paul R.; Palmer, Matt; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2023-05-24)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of high friction socks on in-shoe foot sliding and running performance of male footballers during change of direction movements. Twelve recreational football players (mean age 20.3±1.1 years) completed a 26 m dynamic agility course at their maximum running speed. 3D kinematic and kinetic data were collected for three maximum speed 45° side-cuts, and 180° turns in two different sock conditions. Comparisons were made between a sock with a high static coefficient of friction (GripSock) and a regular sock (CompressionS). The Gripsock condition significantly increased utilised traction (COFu) and a reduction of GRF angle (GRFα) were identified during the braking phase of the side cut (COFu: + 9.3±10 %; GRFα: - 3.1±2.9 %) but not in the side-cut propulsion, turn braking and turn propulsion phases. Speed perception was raised in the GripSock condition (+ 18±30 %). However, wearing a sock with high frictional properties did not significantly reduce in-shoe foot sliding in any examined direction nor did it significantly reduce running times over a functional traction course. Evidently, the relationship between in-shoe traction and running performance is complex and likely dependent on the overall interaction of shoe properties and the type of athletic sock.
  • Performance progression and variability in 100 m freestyle Paralympic swimmers: A comparison of medallists and para classifications

    Thomson, Edward; Milligan, Matthew; University of Chester; British Para-Swimming (Taylor & Francis, 2023-04-16)
    This study quantified the performance progression and variability of elite 100 m freestyle para swimmers according to classification and medal status. To depict progression, annual world ranking times from 2009 to 2016 were obtained for 253 male and 236 female para swimmers and expressed relative to their respective (2012 & 2016) Paralympic Games performances. Comparisons according to medalling status and para classification were made using linear mixed models. Although not always continuous, swimmers generally progressed year-on-year by≈0.53%. Medallists made significantly greater performance progressions (2.76 ± 0.63%) than non-medallists (2.15 ± 0.31%) over the years preceding a Paralympic Games. The most physically impaired swimmers (S1-S4 classes) made significantly greater performance progressions in the final 3 years before a Paralympic Games than all other subgroups (S5-S6, S7-S10 & S11-S13). Within-swimmer variation in swimmers overall, expressed as coefficient of variation, was 0.56 ± 0.39%, whilst between-swimmer variation was 0.9 ± 0.2%. In both scenarios, S1-S4 swimmers evidenced greater overall variation. These findings have implications for para swimmers, coaches and support staff when planning training and analysing competition outcomes. We also propose performance variation to be a useful metric in the identification of para swimmers warranting (re-)classification.
  • Effects of strength training on the biomechanics and coordination of short-term maximal cycling

    Burnie, Louise; Worsfold, Paul; Wheat, Jonathon; Barratt, Paul; Davids, Keith; Northumbria University; Sheffield Hallam University; English Institute of Sport; BAE Systems Digital Intelligence; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2022-06-28)
    The aim was to investigate the effects of a gym-based strength training intervention on biomechanics and intermuscular coordination patterns during short-term maximal cycling. Twelve track sprint cyclists performed 3 × 4 s seated sprints at 135 rpm, interspersed with 2 × 4 s seated sprints at 60 rpm on an isokinetic ergometer, repeating the session 11.6 ± 1.4 weeks later following a training programme that included two gym-based strength training sessions per week. Joint moments were calculated via inverse dynamics, using pedal forces and limb kinematics. EMG activity was measured for 9 lower limb muscles. Track cyclists ‘leg strength” increased (7.6 ± 11.9 kg, P = 0.050 and ES = 0.26) following the strength training intervention. This was accompanied by a significant increase in crank power over a complete revolution for sprints at 135 rpm (26.5 ± 36.2 W, P = 0.028 and ES = 0.29). The increase in leg strength and average crank power was associated with a change in biceps femoris muscle activity, indicating that the riders successfully adapted their intermuscular coordination patterns to accommodate the changes in personal constraints to increase crank power
  • The Change in Test Cricket Performance Following the Introduction of T20 Cricket: Implications for Tactical Strategy

    Scott, Nicholls; Lee, Pote; Edd, Thomson; Nicole, Theis; University of Chester; University of Derby; University of Gloucester (Indiana University–Purdue University, 2023-02-02)
    International cricket has evolved from predominantly Test cricket, to shorter formats of competition. With the high player overlap between formats, the introduction of Twenty20 (T20) cricket is proposed to have influenced Test cricket and therefore the tactical strategies coaches and players should attempt to implement. The aim of this study was to identify the change in specific Test cricket performance metrics following the introduction of T20 cricket across a 20-year period (2000-2020). A total of 667 matches involving the top eight International Cricket Council (ICC) Test-cricket nations were analyzed. Overall, the introduction of T20 cricket has been associated with a change in the way in which Test cricket is currently played. Results identified significantly ( p < 0.001) more runs being scored by sixes and less by fours. A significant (17.4%; p < 0.001) decrease was also present in the percentage of Test matches ending in draws (23.5% in 2000 to 6.4% in 2020). Run rates increased for five teams (India, New Zealand, Pakistan, South Africa, and Sri Lanka), remained constant for one team (West Indies), and decreased for two teams (Australia, England) across the entire period studied. However, there was no change in the number of days Test matches lasted, with the average number of days continuing to last into day five (4.5 decreasing to 4.3). Findings highlight that improving the ability to strike a greater number of sixes, increase the overall run rate, and facilitate strike rotation when batting to be a focus for coaches and players alike. Future studies should ascertain whether the introduction of T20 has had an effect on One Day International (ODI) performance variables while further considering the impact of home advantage and team quality, to facilitate enhanced tactical and strategic decision-making.
  • Importance of GNSS data quality assessment with novel control criteria in professional soccer match- play

    Shergill, Aman S.; Twist, Craig; Highton, Jamie; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2021-07-06)
    This study assessed the quality of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) signal during professional football match-play in different stadia with the application of a novel Data Quality Control Criteria (DQCC). DQCC was applied to GPS-files from match-play, derived using 10 Hz GNSS devices for 27 professional soccer players across a season to assess external load measures accounting for poor positioning quality (%) and horizontal dilution of precision. Performances were categorised on playing position as Wide or Central to assess proximity to stand cover on GNSS signal quality. An average reduction in total distance (11.2%), high-speed running distance (6.4%), sprint distance (7.0%), accelerations (10.3%) and decelerations (10.0%) (all P <0.01) was observed upon DQCC application. In worst cases, 90% of an external variable was affected by poor quality signal. Signal quality was worse for wide positioned players than centrally positioned (positioning quality 2.6% lower (P <0.01)), resulting in a larger reduction of external variables upon DQCC application. Large stands in football stadia affect the data quality of GNSS and is exacerbated for players positioned closer to stand cover. Viewing only data with acceptable Position Quality and HDOP meaningfully reduces measured external loads, which has implications for the application of match data.
  • Effect of varying recovery intensities on power outputs during severe intensity intervals in trained cyclists during the Covid-19 pandemic.

    Chorley, Alan; Lamb, Kevin L.; University of Chester (Springer, 2023-02-16)
    Purpose: The study aimed to investigate the effects of different recovery intensities on the power outputs of repeated severe intensity intervals and the implications for W′ reconstitution in trained cyclists. Methods: 18 trained cyclists (FTP 258.0 ± 42.7 W; weekly training 8.6 ± 1.7 h∙week-1) familiar with interval training, use of the Zwift® platform throughout the Covid-19 pandemic and previously established FTP (95% of mean power output from a 20-min test), performed 5 x 3-min severe intensity efforts interspersed with 2-min recoveries. Recovery intensities were: 50 W (LOW), 50% of functional threshold power (MOD), and self-selected power output (SELF). Results: Whilst power outputs declined as the session progressed, mean power outputs during the severe intervals across the conditions were not different to each other (LOW 300.1 ± 48.1 W; MOD: 296.9 ± 50.4 W; SELF: 298.8 ± 53.3 W) despite the different recovery conditions. Mean power outputs of the self-selected recovery periods were 121.7 ± 26.2 W. However, intensity varied during the self-selected recovery periods, with values in the last 15-s being greater than the first 15-s (p <0.001) and decreasing throughout the session (128.7 ± 25.4 W to 113.9 ± 29.3 W). Conclusions: Reducing recovery intensities below 50% of FTP failed to enhance subsequent severe intensity intervals, suggesting a lower limit for optimal W′ reconstitution had been reached. As self-selected recoveries were seen to adapt in order to maintain the severe intensity power output as the session progressed, adopting such a strategy might be preferential for interval training sessions.
  • Perfectionism among young female competitive Irish dancers: prevalence and relationship with injury responses

    Pentith, Rebecca; Moss, Samantha; Lamb, Kevin L.; Edwards, Carmel; University of Chester (J. Michael Ryan Publishing, 2021-03-29)
    This study investigated the prevalence of perfectionism among young female competitive Irish dancers and examined the relationships between perfectionistic tendencies and coping strategies used when experiencing injury. Sixty-eight female dancers (Mean age: 14 ± 2.3 years) completed the Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale and the Ways of Coping Questionnaire and provided a record of injuries incurred during their championship careers. Participants reported 189 injuries, mostly involving the lower extremities. Seventy-nine percent of dancers reported perfectionistic tendencies (mixed perfectionism 40%, pure self-oriented perfectionism 29%, pure socially prescribed perfectionism 10%), and most frequently adopted “planful problemsolving,” “seeking social support,” “distancing,” and “self-controlling” strategies to cope with injury. Perfectionism and two coping strategies were found to be significantly related (p = 0.03); “planful problem-solving” was typically used “quite a bit or a great deal” by the mixed perfectionism group, but only “somewhat” by the non-perfectionism group, whereas “confrontive coping” was typically not used by the non-perfectionism group but was used “somewhat” by the mixed perfectionism group. Given the presence of such a large degree of perfectionism and the simultaneous employment of problem- and emotion-focused strategies when coping with injuries, it is suggested that medical practitioners acknowledge such tendencies when supporting their dancers in order to reduce the likelihood of negative psychological impact.
  • Sport, Children, and Socialization

    Green, Ken; Wheeler, Sharon; Foss Johansen, Patrick; University of Chester; Wrexham Glynd?r University; Inland University of Applied Sciences (Oxford University Press, 2022-11-21)
    This chapter explores what is meant by ‘socialization’ as well as some of the key aspects of sports socialization (such as the long-standing problematic of the process of socialization into sport, the impact of socio-economic divisions on socialization, and the relationship between socialization and lifelong participation). It also examines the main approaches to understanding socialization into sport and some of the main debates (such as the growing involvement of parents in the sporting socialization of children). All-in-all, there is now a substantial body of evidence that the foundations for lifelong participation in sport are usually laid in childhood and youth in family contexts. Participation is unlikely to endure into and through adulthood unless foundations have been laid in childhood in the family.
  • ‘Not to judge by the looks but you can tell by the looks!’ Physical capital as symbolic capital in the individualization of health among young Norwegians

    Green, Ken; Røset, Linda; Tjomsland, Hege; Cale, Lorraine; Sigurjonsson, Thorsteinn; Thurston, Miranda; University of Chester; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences; Western Norway University of Applied Sciences; Loughborough University; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences; Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (Taylor & Francis, 2022-12-28)
    In this paper we explore how 15–16-year-old Norwegians experience social and cultural norms that shape their relationship with health and physical activity (PA) in a country where participation in PA is normative, in the sense that it is not only a widely shared practice but, in having significant cultural traction, is commonly understood as a ‘normal’ part of Norwegian daily life. The study draws upon qualitative data generated from 31 focus groups involving 148 10th graders (15–16-year-olds) in eight secondary schools in Norway. A key finding was that health was primarily viewed as synonymous with physical health and physical health as closely related to PA. A symbolic marker for physical condition – and, by extension, physical health – was physical appearance and ‘looks’ (in other words, physical attractiveness), revolving around gender normative bodily ‘shape’. In this vein, the youngsters tended towards individualistic views of health – seeing health as a responsibility that lay largely in their hands. We argue that the significance of growing up and living in a wealthy, social democratic nation-state, with high living standards and high social and cultural expectations, can have profound implications for youngsters’ perceptions of health and PA, the impact of neoliberalism notwithstanding.
  • Home‐based care nurses' lived experiences and perceived competency needs: A phenomenological study

    Rusli, Khairul Dzakirin Bin; Ong, Shu Fen; Speed, Shaun; Seah, Betsy; McKenna, Lisa; Lau, Ying; Liaw, Sok Ying; National University of Singapore; Khoo Teck Puat Hospital; University of Chester; La Trobe University (Wiley, 2022-05-31)
  • Scholar, gentleman and player: a tribute to Eric Dunning

    Malcolm, Dominic; Waddington, Ivan; Loughborough University; University of Chester (Taylor & Francis, 2020-09-14)
  • Alchemy: Brian Clough & Peter Taylor at Hartlepools United

    Hull, Christopher; University of Chester
    Boxing Day 1962: Sunderland’s star striker Brian Clough suffers a career-ending knee injury when he collides with an outrushing goalkeeper. After a forlorn battle to regain fitness, he retires early and sinks into deep despair. October 1965: Clough persuades ex-Middlesbrough teammate Peter Taylor to join him in managing perennial North-East strugglers Hartlepools United, lying next to bottom of the Fourth Division. A magical football odyssey has begun. Alchemy reveals the bittersweet reality of Brian Clough and Peter Taylor’s first management job together. Lower-league Hartlepools United are penniless, with a meddling chairman, a ramshackle ground and want-away players. Yet the management pair tackle every challenge head-on, forging a winning blueprint that later transforms unfashionable Derby County and Nottingham Forest into League and European Cup champions. Exploiting a wealth of archive newspapers, plus interviews with those present at the creation, Alchemy exposes the humble origins of Clough & Taylor’s meteoric rise to the top of the football tree.
  • The physiological, perceptual and neuromuscular responses of team sport athletes to a running and cycling high intensity interval training session

    Twist, Craig; Bott, Richard; Highton, Jamie; University of Chester (Springer, 2022-10-07)
    Purpose: The acute physiological, perceptual and neuromuscular responses to volume-matched running and cycling high intensity interval training (HIIT) were studied in team sport athletes. Methods: In a randomized cross-over design, 11 male team sport players completed 3 x 6 min (with 5 min between sets) repeated efforts of 15 s exercising at 120% speed (s"V" ̇O2max) or power (p"V" ̇O2max) at VO2max followed by 15 s passive recovery on a treadmill or cycle ergometer, respectively. Results: Absolute mean "V" ̇O2 (ES [95%CI] = 1.46 [0.47-2.34], p < 0.001) and heart rate (ES [95%CI] = 1.53 [0.53-2.41], p = 0.001) were higher in running than cycling HIIT. Total time at >90% VO2max during the HIIT was higher for running compared to cycling (ES [95%CI] = 1.21 [0.26-2.07], p = 0.015). Overall differential RPE (dRPE) (ES [95%CI] = 0.55 [-0.32-1.38], p = 0.094) and legs dRPE (ES [95%CI] = -0.65 [-1.48-0.23], p = 0.111) were similar whereas breathing dRPE (ES [95%CI] = 1.01 [0.08-1.85], p = 0.012) was higher for running. Maximal isometric knee extension force was unchanged after running (ES [95%CI] = -0.04 [-0.80-0.8], p = 0.726) compared to a moderate reduction after cycling (ES [95%CI] = -1.17 [-2.02- -0.22], p = 0.001). Conclusion: Cycling HIIT in team sport athletes is unlikely to meet the requirements for improving run-specific metabolic adaptation but might offer a greater lower limb neuromuscular load.

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