• Sensual austerity

      Bristow, Maxine; University of Chester (2006-07-10)
      This exhibition presented two different but complementary solo exhibitions which documented Maxine Bristow's work from 1996 to 2006. An accompanying exhibition catalogue was produced.
    • The Significance of Marie Duval’s Drawing Style

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester
      Duval’s drawings were made to provoke laughter, by articulating and rearticulating social stereotypes and contradictions. Duval achieved this in her choice of topics and, more unusually, in her use of ideas of her own position as a humorous visual journalist: her visible lack of training, stage career, gender and social class, relative to the experiences of readers. This chapter will examine this articulation, considering late nineteenth-century gender and class relationships between humour, displays of technical skill and concepts of vulgar behaviour. The chapter will finally exemplify these relationships in two Duval drawings on the topic of the Royal Academy Summer Exhibitions of 1880 and 1876.
    • Spatial Design for Multicultural Online Game Environments

      Summers, Alan; Bellaby, Gareth; University of Chester, University of Central Lancashire (Shibaura Institute of Technology, 2013-08)
      Current gaming technologies enable players from different cultures to communicate and participate in gameplay within a single game environment. A player from one culture may now inhabit a three-dimensional game environment developed by designers from a different culture. These game environments bypass geographic and cultural boundaries and question differences in Eastern and Western gameplay preferences recognized by the games industry. This paper discusses the effect of cultural knowledge on the spatial design of three-dimensional game environments. A new methodology for the comparative analysis of the design of three-dimensional game environments is established considering cultural models as applied to design thinking. Based on spatial analysis it offers game designers and researchers metrics correlated to human way-finding in the real world that are directly relevant to the forms of game play in these environments. The initial analysis of internationally popular, and culturally specific, game environments indicate areas where cultural differences may be considered through spatial considerations within a design methodology. Recognized cognitive differences between Eastern and Western cultures and the interpretation of the two dimensional visual field are considered within findings that determine the use of spatial metrics is a methodology that can be used by design researchers and game designers as a tool set within the design cycle of online multicultural three-dimensional game environments.
    • Teaching by story

      Rutherford; University of Chester (2012-07-09)
      This presentation discusses the role of higher education in modern society.
    • The book as a ruined space: palliative strategies in photographers’ publishing

      Daly, Tim; University of Chester (2015)
      Ruined spaces of our recent past leave us with premature waste in a flux of unfinished disposal. Many photographer’s books are elegaic records of such derelict spaces, yet few break free from Western codex-form publishing protocols. With rigid sequencing, determined narrative and a tendency to over-classify, many publications of this type celebrate the inevitability of decline rather than re-imagine a more contingent future. Non-codex and hybrid book forms however, are untypical, yet provide a looser, free-form narrative and for the reader, this kind of book can be as much of a ruined space as the very site it’s aiming to depict.
    • The Bookbinding Workshop: making as collaborative pedagogic practice

      Kealy-Morris, Elizabeth; University of Chester (2015-02)
      The value of Engagement is no longer questioned” (Trowler & Trowler, 2010, p.9) Trowler & Trowler, in their 2010 report for the HEA’s Student Engagement Project, note that studies have consistently shown associations between student engagement and improvements in identified desired outcomes, including cognitive development, critical thinking skills, practical competence, and skills transferability. They also note that there are specific features of engagement which improve outcomes, including student-staff contact, active learning, and cooperation amongst students such as group work and peer support. Trowler & Trowler found that interacting with staff has been shown to have a powerful impact on learning, especially when it takes place outside the classroom and responds to individual student needs. The NUS 2012 Student Experience Survey supports Trowler & Trowler’s findings. The purpose of the study was to understand student expectations of a university experience. Teaching quality was cited as the most important factor in what makes a good learning experience. Students want more engaging teaching styles that are interactive, use technology & props to make the subject more accessible and interesting. This paper will consider student engagement through collaborative teaching and learning practices I have developed within a series of bookbinding workshops in which I acquire new skills alongside my students. Developed directly from my practice-based PhD inquiry The Artist Book: making as embodied knowledge of practice & the self which emerged from my curiosity of whether new knowledge of practice, creativity, expression and the self might emerge from the embodied practice of making with one’s hands. Inspired by the research of Reid and Solomonides (2007) which suggests that for creative students to engage successfully in their studies they must have the opportunity to “develop a robust Sense of Being [sic]” . The most valuable pedagogic conditions, according to Reid and Solomonides, will be those that create learning opportunities that encourage this embodiment of the creative self. Lawrie (2008) ponders whether design educators could encourage in our students a deeper understanding of their subject beyond skills leading to employability and entrepreneurship. She suggests, “…an answer may lie in the intersection of embodiment, meaning and signification” . The bookbinding workshop developed from my desire to seek ways to engage with and alongside students in my practice and research to ground my own making within my pedagogic practice. In this way students are not being ‘instructed’ by a skilled specialist but rather collaborating with a committed enthusiast and researcher learning from their practice and experience. This paper will discuss the impact these workshops have had on participating students, their practice and their sense of “creative self” through the analysis of anonymous surveys carried over the span of two years.
    • The Bookbinding Workshop: making as collaborative pedagogical practice

      Kealy-Morris, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Wiley, 2014-10)
      “The value of Engagement is no longer questioned” (Trowler & Trowler, 2010, p.9) Trowler & Trowler, in their 2010 report for the HEA’s Student Engagement Project, note that studies have consistently shown associations between student engagement and improvements in identified desired outcomes, including cognitive development, critical thinking skills, practical competence, and skills transferability. They also note that there are specific features of engagement which improve outcomes, including student-staff contact, active learning, and cooperation amongst students such as group work and peer support. Trowler & Trowler found that interacting with staff has been shown to have a powerful impact on learning, especially when it takes place outside the classroom and responds to individual student needs. The NUS 2012 Student Experience Survey supports Trowler & Trowler’s findings. The purpose of the study was to understand student expectations of a university experience. Teaching quality was cited as the most important factor in what makes a good learning experience. Students want more engaging teaching styles that are interactive, use technology & props to make the subject more accessible and interesting. This paper will consider student engagement through collaborative teaching and learning practices I have developed within a series of bookbinding workshops away from the studio environment in which I develop new skills alongside my students. In this way students are not being ‘instructed’ by a skilled specialist but rather collaborating with a committed enthusiast.
    • The facture of ‘Dispossession’: trace, colour, light and time in a new graphic adaptation of Trollope’s 1879 novel ‘John Caldigate’.

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (Comics and Adaptation Conference, University of Leicester., 2015-04-01)
      This paper will discuss my forthcoming adaptation of Anthony Trollope’s John Caldigate (1878) as a new graphic novel, Dispossession. Produced in the context of an academic conference on Trollope in 2015, the new graphic novel functions as a research outcome in the sense that its academic audience is a ‘knowing one’, to use Linda Hutcheon’s term (Hutcheon 2006:122). This audience will both expect to read the graphic novel as the product of a self-aware relationship with Trollope’s novel and make demands upon the new graphic novel that derive from its members’ own, particularly focused, experience of Trollope’s novel itself. As a result, the process of making the adaptation has distilled questions about the act of novel/comic adaptation itself that have enabled the emergence of a methodology for the adaptation process and aimed to produce the new book as a comprehensible response. Two questions have guided the adaptation: 1) What results if the existing generic constraints of graphic novels are self-consciously reformed in the process of adaptation, and the protocol for the new book derives from an analysis of Trollope’s text relative to the behaviours of its time and ours? And 2) How can Dispossession employ and/or depict equivocation in the style of its facture, distinct from the depiction of the plot? Following Walter Benjamin’s theorisation of translation, the process of creating Dispossession approaches Trollope’s text as the source of a protocol or set of governing rules, including an apprehension of the reading behaviours of his contemporaries and of contemporary graphic novel readers (Benjamin 1969:70). As a result, the relationship between novel and graphic novel constitutes both the process and product of adaptation as an experience for a knowing reader. This paper will summarise the rationalisation of methods of facture in response to the guiding questions. In particular, it will consider the ways in which specific historic depictive regimes represent specific diegetic meteorologies, and how these are associated with both historic periods and particular places. In terms of drawing style, the challenge for this adaptation lies not only in identifying the existing different behaviours of novels and graphic novels, but in meaningfully producing a new style of drawing relative to an existing writing style. It is not the task of comparing an existing style of drawing with Trollope’s writing style, but one demanding the speculative creation of new rules within which to draw. As Dispossession also has a research function, the process of meaningfully inventing a new style also demands comprehensive rationalisation. I will discuss how Trollope’s writing style formalises his approach to plot, tying style to genre. In the plot, the narrator both consistently avoids making definitive statements about events and character traits and avoids presenting a definitive opinion. Instead, information is derived from a number of different, and sometimes contradictory, sources and accumulates gradually. Trollope utilises this technique with great consistency. From an analysis of Trollope’s style emerges the question of style in the facture of the adaptation, answers to which finalise its rules of facture: how does Dispossession employ and/or depict equivocation in its facture, distinct from the depiction of the plot? To answer this question, the paper will discuss the broader temporal implications of relationships between types of plot and drawing regimes, considering in detail differences in anaphoras, special locations and discursive traditions using examples of types of facture from 19th century and 21st century narrative drawing.
    • The Hill of Dreams: Re-evaluating literary influences in the northern landscape photography of Raymond Moore.

      Daly, Tim; University of Chester (Northern Light: Critical approaches to proximity and distance in northern landscape photography conference 2018, 2018-07-02)
      The landscape photography of Raymond Moore (1920-1987) has been contextualised as a minor footnote in the British documentary tradition of the 1970s, yet his work deserves further scrutiny. Using the author’s previously unpublished interview with the photographer recorded in the last year of his life, this paper explores Moore’s interest in literature and charts the influences that helped to shape his unique view of the north. For Moore, reading Arthur Machen’s fantasy novel The Hill of Dreams was an epiphany – yet it is hard to think of a more unlikely source of inspiration for the photographer best known for his banal, distanced and reductive view of the north. Moore was a complex artist, not given to writing about his work and one who rarely spoke about his motives. Working outside the long-term documentary project format common amongst his peers, Moore operated without a brief or a narrative intent and was sceptical about the perceived proselytising tone of his contemporaries. Instead and like Machen, Moore saw the northern landscape as a fantasy playground – a territory rich in visual banality and a space to exercise formalism and an aesthetic sensibility imprinted from an earlier career as an abstract painter. Drawn to liminal spaces and deserted edgelands and with a fascination for the nondescript, Moore was a mute chronicler of the mundane and an unacknowledged proponent of the detached observational genre so familiar today.
    • The Influence of Manga on the Graphic Novel

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (Cambridge University Press, 2018-08-01)
      Providing a range of cogent examples, this chapter describes the influences of the Manga genre of comics strip on the Graphic Novel genre, over the last 35 years, considering the functions of domestication, foreignisation and transmedia on readers, markets and forms.
    • The Intermittent Image

      Piper-Wright, Tracy; University of Chester (CIEBA-FBAUL and Edições Universitárias Lusófonas, 2016-11-18)
      Errors can occur in all photographic practice but the technology and culture of digital photography reduce opportunities for mistakes and the likelihood of any being retained or published. This has led to the removal of error from the prevailing image culture with the consequent foregrounding of accuracy and resemblance in relation to everyday photography practice. Error images disrupt the conventions of photographic representation and in so doing present an alternate conception of photography as emergent, processual and performative. The error image exposes photography as a human and technological ‘act’ and presents the viewer with a transformative visual experience which has aesthetic interest and value.
    • The Marie Duval Archive

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; Waite, Julian; University of Chester, Central Saint Martins (University of Chester, 2016-03-31)
      A visual image database of the work of 19th-century cartoonist and actress Marie Duval.
    • The Marie Duval Archive: Memory and the Development of the Comic Strip Canon

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (Palgrave Macmillan, 2018-09-23)
      This chapter describes the creation and publishing of The Marie Duval Archive, a free online image archive which brings together the known extant work of pioneering London cartoonist and theatre actress Marie Duval (1847–1890). It discusses how analysis of the current canon of nineteenth-century comic strips influenced both the purpose of The Archive and it’s form. Considering the impact of digitisation and remote archiving on the canon, this commentary finally describes the specific relationships between archive, canon and memory that The Archive articulates, relative to the disappearance from scholarly and public view of Duval’s work, with one notable exception, since the appearance of her last drawings in the 1880s.
    • The Shift Dress as Cultural Meaning

      Kealy-Morris, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Gold Word Publishing, 2018-02-08)
      This paper will offer a historic and semiotic analysis of the shift dress as essential to the middle and upper-middle class American woman’s wardrobe and its lasting influence on American sportswear and the collections of luxury brand collections as a signifier of understated feminine youthful health through movement. The shift dress can be traced back to the 1920s chemise. Dresses of that era, particularly those of Coco Chanel, featured exposed legs and arms, simple cuts, loose shapes and little waist definition. This was a move away from corsets and offered women both style and ease of movement. The shift dress became a staple of the American woman’s wardrobe in the 1960s and signified a new trend in women’s clothing as the garment promoted independence, modernity and a redefinition of the female shape. This paper argues that the shift dress’s key place in the American woman’s wardrobe reflects the unique historical and cultural influences on American dress from the birth of the new democratic nation in the Eighteenth century to the rise of the dominance of New York City’s ready-to-wear industry in the mid-Twentieth century and concurrent ideological expectations of the female form.
    • The value of uncertainty: The photographic error as embodied knowledge

      Piper-Wright, Tracy; University of Chester (2018-03-26)
      These days we rarely encounter photographs that have gone wrong: images that are blurred, out of focus, over or under exposed or just plain failed. But our failure to think about failure is having a detrimental impact on our relationship with photography and how we interpret photographic truth and meaning. A consequence of removing errors from the prevailing image culture is that accuracy and resemblance become the predominant visual signifiers of the photographs we see on a daily basis. Accurate photographs seem to depict things ‘as they are’, and to provide a transparent gateway to real events. These neutral, authorless photographs become the basis for an image economy where the tyranny of post-truth claims can take hold. Without a concept of photography as an embodied activity involving human decision making and the limitations of technology, the resulting image becomes the sole locus of attention for the truth claims about what it depicts. Photographic errors are important because they present us with evidence of the contingency of the photograph, breaking the spell of neutrality and reasserting human/technical relationship in the creation of the image. The proposed paper draws on my practice-based research project In Pursuit of Error which is a ethnographic study of the error in photographic practice. Theoretical models drawn from feminist theory, performance theory and aesthetics are used to interrogate the images and narratives collected from photographers. The error is revealed as a discontinuous but valued phenomenon which disrupts the conventions of photographic representation, and proposes the deliberate or accidental photographic error as an emergent, processual and performative act. The paper will argue that the error presents an alternative photographic epistemology from that found in contemporary visual culture: a form of ‘messy’, embodied knowledge which challenges a neutral and machine-led concept of photography in which veracity is the central signifier, proposing instead a concept of photography which acknowledges the subjectivity of the photographic ‘act-in-context’.
    • The Work of Maggie Jackson

      Turner, Jeremy; University of Chester (University of Chester, 2016-04-21)
      Catalogue entry to accompany exhibited work by Maggie Jackson
    • The ‘Epistemic Object’ in the Creative Process of Doctoral Inquiry

      Gray, Carole; Malins, Julian; Bristow, Maxine; University of Chester (Intellect Ltd., 2018-12-15)
      Within the framework of practice-led doctoral research in the art and design sector, there has long been debate about the role of the artefact/creative works in the process of inquiry and in the final submission for Ph.D. examination. Their status can be ambiguous and the concept of ‘exhibition’ is – we would argue – problematic in this context. In this chapter we want to suggest an alternative way of considering the role of artefacts/creative works in a doctoral submission, by discussing the liberating concept of ‘epistemic objects’ – their possible forms and agencies, and the alternative display/sharing of the understandings generated from these through ‘exposition’ not exhibition. Whilst our experience and expertise lies within the sector of art and design, we suggest that some ideas in this chapter may resonate and be relevant to other creative disciplines in the revealing and sharing of doctoral research outcomes. This process can be difficult and provoke many anxieties for the practitioner-researcher and their supervisors, so some clarity on this might help everyone involved in the examination of doctoral work to approach it with integrity and confidence, and see it as a valuable learning experience for all involved.
    • Through the surface: Collaborating textiles artists from Britain and Japan

      Bristoe, Maxine; Chester College of Higher Education (2004-01-26)
      Through the suraface was an Anglo-Japanese mentoring exchange project which explored points of difference and similarity within the cultures of Japan and Britain and involved collaboration between textile articles who were at different stahes of career development. Maxine Bristow mentored the Jaapanese artist Kyoko Nitta and contributed an essay - Material trace-marking time and defining space - to the accompanying booklet.
    • A Trace of Actions Unseen: The Photographic Error as Photography ‘in performance’

      Piper-Wright, Tracy; University of Chester (2018-11-16)
      In contemporary digital photography the error is an increasingly rare and unusual phenomenon, but it presents valuable insights into the practice of photography. This article proposes time as a specific indicator of difference between the ‘conventional’ photograph and the error, based on a distinction between performativity and performance. The performance of the error takes place in three ‘acts’: the photographic event, image recording and interpretation by the viewer. In each stage the error’s relationship to time is shown to be ambiguous and multifaceted, counterpointing a simplified concept of time which prevails in the conventional photograph. The error exposes the entanglement of actors and relationships within the act of photographing and in so doing destabilises common assumptions about photographs as simple, immediate documents.
    • A Trace of Actions Unseen: The Photographic Error as Photography ‘in performance’

      Piper-Wright, Tracy; University of Chester
      In contemporary digital photography the accident or fault is an increasingly rare and unusual phenomenon, but it presents valuable insights into the practice of photography. This article discusses how the photographic error reveals qualities of the photographic experience normally hidden in conventional photographs, and proposes a reconsideration of time in relation to photography perceived through the accidental image. The error is conceived as a performance, extending the conventional time scales of the photograph from the ‘snap’ into three ‘acts’: the photographic event, the recording of an image and, lastly, interpretation by the viewer. In each stage the error’s relationship to time is shown to be ambiguous and multifaceted, counterpointing a simplified concept of time which prevails in the conventional photograph. The error exposes the entanglement of actors and relationships within the act of photographing and in so doing destabilises common assumptions about photographs as simple, immediate documents.