• Albertian Perspective and Augmented Reality: Lessons from Panofsky

      Summers, Alan; McGuirk, Tom; University of Chester (Glyndwr University, 2017-09-12)
      This paper addresses the ubiquity of Albertian perspective as the dominant paradigm in the production of certain diagrams. Panofsky recognized the cultural specificity of perspective as, “a systematic abstraction from the structure of … psychophysiological space.” He considered it essential to ask with regard to artistic periods, not only whether they have perspective, but also what kind of perspective they have. This paper asks a similar question with regard to the employment of such perspective in augmented reality technologies. In East Asian culture an alternative use of floating perspectives has developed, this is recognised by cultural psychologists as indicative of the different sensitivities to contextual information. Differences in the interpretation of the visual field between Western and East Asian subjects further call into question the universal application of Albertian and Cartesian models in the design of the diagrammatic environment. Augmented reality technologies are now capable of overlaying diagrammatic information directly upon the user’s visual field. Therefore the perspectival conventions of three-dimensional visualisation techniques might potentially come to reinforce Cartesian principles, and thereby be regarded as the unjustifiable imposition of a culturally specific worldview. This paper addresses the psychological, philosophical and indeed cultural ramifications of this phenomenon.
    • Arts practice and research: locating alterity and expertise.

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (International Journal of Art and Design Education, 2015-05-01)
      There is still no agreed pedagogic definition of practice-based research. However, there is not a dearth of definitions, but rather a wide variety, predicated upon the developing programmes of individual places of study. This article will examine these definitions in terms of underlying concepts of intentionality and alterity and the ways in which instrumental use of them affects study. The article will discuss a number of existing models for the theorising and adjudication of practice as research, and the questions that underpin their development. First, are non-text outputs, and the methods of their production, able to communicate knowledge rather than simply constituting knowledge? Second, by what criteria can this knowledge be adjudicated within an academic environment? Third, what is the status of these outputs and methods relative to the production of text? It will propose that interrogation of these models will advance little in discussions that focus on media. Text or nottext is beside the point. Rather, the relationship between research and practice can be explored as a relationship between intentionality and alterity, based in an essentially social conception of communities of expertise, including academic communities of expertise. Finally, the article will describe an attempt by the author to undertake a drawing activity in response to a research question, in order to assess the possibilities of articulating practice specifically in order to demonstrate expert knowledge of the field in which a research question occurs.
    • Autoscopy

      Boetker-Smith, Daniel; Chester College of Higher Education (2004-05)
      The Autoscopy exhibition was held at the George Paton Gallery at the University of Melbourne from 18-28 May 2004. It is an ongoing photographic project in which photography itself is put into question. Autoscopy is defined as 'the haalucination or illustion of seeing oneself'; and in this body of work it is the conscious suituating of the self within the image that seeks to illuminate and undermine the traditionally separate roles of photographer, viewer, and subject.
    • Being at home abroad: Londoners ‘ong continong’ (on the continent) in the 19th-century comics of Marie Duval.

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; University of Chester, Central Saint Martins (, 6th Graphic Novel and Comics Conference and 9th Bande Desinee Society Conference, Paris., 2015-06-01)
      Marie Duval is one of the great unsung cartoonists of the 19th century. Her work for the journal Judy between 1869-1885 took comic strips into new and unexpected areas. One of her interests was travel, and in particular the way in which working class and lower middle class people were starting to go on holiday abroad. This phenomenon was a continuation of the notion of the ‘tour’, an upper class pursuit aimed at improving one’s cultural capital though seeing the (usually classical) sights. However, the new cheap package tours of the late 19th century allowed a ‘lower sort’ to participate – with obvious comedic possibilities for the cartoonist. This paper will explore Duval’s take on the clash of manners when ordinary British people came into contact with ‘funny foreigners’ (in particular the French, the Swiss, and the Germans), while at the same time indicating her very knowing references to cartooning traditions (Busch, Rowlandson, etc.) and her ‘other’ career as a popular actress. The paper is part of a bigger project about Duval, funded by the Arts and Humanities Research Council, and will be presented jointly by the project’s three leads.
    • The book as a ruined space: palliative strategies in photographers’ publishing

      Daly, Tim; University of Chester (2015)
      Ruined spaces of our recent past leave us with premature waste in a flux of unfinished disposal. Many photographer’s books are elegaic records of such derelict spaces, yet few break free from Western codex-form publishing protocols. With rigid sequencing, determined narrative and a tendency to over-classify, many publications of this type celebrate the inevitability of decline rather than re-imagine a more contingent future. Non-codex and hybrid book forms however, are untypical, yet provide a looser, free-form narrative and for the reader, this kind of book can be as much of a ruined space as the very site it’s aiming to depict.
    • Book handling as a research method

      Daly, Tim; University of Chester (Impact Press Publications, 2018-04-11)
      How do we conceptualise touch? Unlike most visual art, touch is a fundamental aspect of interacting with artists’ books and without such a physical interaction with the artefact it is impossible to fully make sense of it. Despite this, there is no obvious syntax for us to report our experiences of handling an artists’ publication. Without handling a book, entire swathes of intertextual nuances could be missed - the deliberate material choices of the artist and the reader’s own rich experiential past never get the chance to make meaning. It can be argued that handling books provides a type of tacit knowledge that is unavailable from viewing alone. Developing a framework for reporting this haptic experience applying notions from material culture (for touch) and from literary theory (for intertextuality) together into a discourse to enrich and enhance our understanding of artists’ book works.
    • The Bookbinding Workshop: making as collaborative pedagogic practice

      Kealy-Morris, Elizabeth; University of Chester (2015-02)
      The value of Engagement is no longer questioned” (Trowler & Trowler, 2010, p.9) Trowler & Trowler, in their 2010 report for the HEA’s Student Engagement Project, note that studies have consistently shown associations between student engagement and improvements in identified desired outcomes, including cognitive development, critical thinking skills, practical competence, and skills transferability. They also note that there are specific features of engagement which improve outcomes, including student-staff contact, active learning, and cooperation amongst students such as group work and peer support. Trowler & Trowler found that interacting with staff has been shown to have a powerful impact on learning, especially when it takes place outside the classroom and responds to individual student needs. The NUS 2012 Student Experience Survey supports Trowler & Trowler’s findings. The purpose of the study was to understand student expectations of a university experience. Teaching quality was cited as the most important factor in what makes a good learning experience. Students want more engaging teaching styles that are interactive, use technology & props to make the subject more accessible and interesting. This paper will consider student engagement through collaborative teaching and learning practices I have developed within a series of bookbinding workshops in which I acquire new skills alongside my students. Developed directly from my practice-based PhD inquiry The Artist Book: making as embodied knowledge of practice & the self which emerged from my curiosity of whether new knowledge of practice, creativity, expression and the self might emerge from the embodied practice of making with one’s hands. Inspired by the research of Reid and Solomonides (2007) which suggests that for creative students to engage successfully in their studies they must have the opportunity to “develop a robust Sense of Being [sic]” . The most valuable pedagogic conditions, according to Reid and Solomonides, will be those that create learning opportunities that encourage this embodiment of the creative self. Lawrie (2008) ponders whether design educators could encourage in our students a deeper understanding of their subject beyond skills leading to employability and entrepreneurship. She suggests, “…an answer may lie in the intersection of embodiment, meaning and signification” . The bookbinding workshop developed from my desire to seek ways to engage with and alongside students in my practice and research to ground my own making within my pedagogic practice. In this way students are not being ‘instructed’ by a skilled specialist but rather collaborating with a committed enthusiast and researcher learning from their practice and experience. This paper will discuss the impact these workshops have had on participating students, their practice and their sense of “creative self” through the analysis of anonymous surveys carried over the span of two years.
    • The Bookbinding Workshop: making as collaborative pedagogical practice

      Kealy-Morris, Elizabeth; University of Chester (Wiley, 2014-10)
      “The value of Engagement is no longer questioned” (Trowler & Trowler, 2010, p.9) Trowler & Trowler, in their 2010 report for the HEA’s Student Engagement Project, note that studies have consistently shown associations between student engagement and improvements in identified desired outcomes, including cognitive development, critical thinking skills, practical competence, and skills transferability. They also note that there are specific features of engagement which improve outcomes, including student-staff contact, active learning, and cooperation amongst students such as group work and peer support. Trowler & Trowler found that interacting with staff has been shown to have a powerful impact on learning, especially when it takes place outside the classroom and responds to individual student needs. The NUS 2012 Student Experience Survey supports Trowler & Trowler’s findings. The purpose of the study was to understand student expectations of a university experience. Teaching quality was cited as the most important factor in what makes a good learning experience. Students want more engaging teaching styles that are interactive, use technology & props to make the subject more accessible and interesting. This paper will consider student engagement through collaborative teaching and learning practices I have developed within a series of bookbinding workshops away from the studio environment in which I develop new skills alongside my students. In this way students are not being ‘instructed’ by a skilled specialist but rather collaborating with a committed enthusiast.
    • Cargo Space

      Grennan, Simon; Sperandio, Christopher; University of Chester; Rice University Houston (Walker Arts Centre, Minneapolis, 2015-09-01)
      A public exhibition at the Walker Arts Centre, Minneapolis
    • Circus Starr: App for Autistic Audiences Research and Development Report

      Bright, Rebecca; Logan, Cath; Piper-Wright, Tracy; Therapy Box, Circus Starr, University of Chester (Nesta, 2015-09)
      The final report for the Digital R&D Project 'Show and Tell', funded by the AHRC, Arts Council England and Nesta. During an 18 month period the project investigated the potential of digital technology to enhance engagement with live arts events for children with autism through the development and testing of a proprietary mobile app.
    • Competence in Your Own Enactment: Subjectivity and the Theorisation of Participatory Art.

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (Bloomsbury, 2014-02-01)
      A chapter in the edited collection "Real Lives, Celebrity Stories: narrative of ordinary and extraordinary people across media."
    • Concrete Knowledge

      McGuirk, Tom; University of Chester (Darc Space, 26 North Great George’s Street, Dublin, 2016-05-17)
      Catalogue essay in exhibition catalogue.
    • Courir deux lièvres: un roman de peu de mots

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (Les Impressions Nouvelles, 2015-01-01)
      A scholarly remediation of one of the later novels of Anthony Trollope for the Francophone market.
    • Cultural cognitive differences in the spatial design of three-dimensional game environments

      Summers, Alan; University of Chester (Space Syntax Laboratory,The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London, 2015-07)
      Research into cognition has indicated cultural differences between Western and East Asian subjects in the perception of two-dimensional screen based images. East Asian subjects are able to process complex changes in visual information across a screen space better than Western subjects, who deal best with centralised changes. This paper discusses how these cultural cognitive differences transfer to the design and interpretation of three-dimensional virtual space, as represented on a two-dimensional screen. Space syntax measures where used to analyse East Asian and Western game environments. Initial results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between the spatial parameters of the two cultural groups of chosen game environments. The analysis of three-dimensional game space also indicates spatial design differences between original Western game environments and their adapted form for the East Asian games market. These adapted game environments are spatially comparable to game environments from other East Asian games, indicating a considered design approach to the design of three-dimensional environments for a different cultural market. The question of whether cultural influence on the design of each game space is tacit or explicit is also considered. Local spatial characteristics that a designer may visually manipulate, where correlated with global spatial characteristics a designer cannot visually determine. The findings indicate cognitive differences in the design of three-dimensional space are present between the groups of Western and East Asian game environments. Results also indicate that these can be discussed in terms of known cultural cognitive differences in the interpretation of two- dimensional imagery.
    • Death returned her to rags - Fzkke Gallery

      Dilworth, Alexe; University of Chester (2016-07-08)
      'Death returned her to rags' is a solo exhibition installed at the Fzkke Gallery, Euskirchen, Germany. It features a substantial body of work investigated through photography, print, sculpture and site-specific interventions. The work explores both the physical and mythological resonances within remote rural landscapes. The date of the show was from 8th July 2016 - 21st of August 2016.
    • Depiction as comedy and truth: women’s dress in Marie Duval’s drawings for ‘Judy’ 1869 – 1885.

      Grennan, Simon; Sabin, Roger; Waite, Julian; University of Chester, Central Saint Martins (Dressing and Undressing the Victorians Conference, University of Chester, 2015-03-01)
      This paper will present and theorise aspects of the facture and iconography of the work of pioneering female cartoonist Marie Duval, in relation to conceptions and representations of women’s dress in London in the 1860s, 1870s and 1880s. Duval’s work appeared in a variety of the cheap British penny papers and comics of the 1860s-1880s. An actress as well as a cartoonist, she lived and worked in an environment of music halls and unlicensed theatres, sensational plays, serials, novels and comic journals. Her drawing style was theatrical, untutored and introduced many techniques that only became common in much later cartooning. She drew hundreds of comic strip pages for the magazine Judy and spin-off compilations, focusing on the humour, attitudes, urbanity and poverty of the types of people she knew. Her characters’ appearance, the ways in which they shape and move themselves in her visual world, and the technically maverick style in which they were drawn, provide a range of subtle and forthright commentaries on the historic dress and behaviour of her working-class London contemporaries, in particularly women of a range of ages, occupations and financial and social situations within this immediate milieu. First, the paper will consider the extent to which the facture of Duval’s drawings articulates relationships between constraint and liberation, in the ways in which she depicts women’s dress, utilising tracing techniques and briccolage, combined with a technically untutored style of drawing. She both cues readers to comedy (emerging as dissonance in her cutting and re-inscribing of contemporaneous fashion illustrations), and depicts embodied social discourse in the form of practices (as contemporaneous truths, in her deft manipulation of misrecognition), themselves generating a system of ideas, and creating a cognitive consensus connecting particular ideas with the behaviour of specific social groups. Second, the paper will consider Duval’s use of body distortion, accumulation, diminution and exaggeration, in which her depictive techniques present women’s dress not as a produced subject but as praxis. It will examine the complex parodic relationships that she creates between readers’ cultural knowledge of action on the contemporaneous theatre stage, in the practices of stage melodrama, and her depictions of women moving through her drawn plots in ‘old fashioned’ bonnets; of their noses; of the significant, ever-changing silhouettes of the carapaces of their chin-to-ankle dresses and of their feet, for example. Parallels will be identified between these Victorian ‘innovations’ and their continued use in twenty-first century ‘current’ and neo-Victorian’visual comedy. Finally, the paper will focus on the plots of Duval’s cartoons, identifying the general anonymity of Duval’s women characters relative to the developing visual identity of a single woman character who appears throughout: Judy herself, the muse and mistress of the magazine. It will present a close reading of a single frontispiece drawing of Judy from 1884, in which Judy rides an ostrich, in order to extrapolate a description of Duval’s cartoons of contemporaneous women that brings together facture, iconography and social milieu in order to understand both the unique processes of her comedy and her ability to depict the truth.
    • 'Dispossession': time, motion and depictive regimes.

      Grennan, Simon; Miers, John; University of Chester, Central Saint Martins (Leuven University Press, 2015-05-01)
      A chapter in the edited collection "Transforming Anthony Trollope: 'Dispossession', Victorianism and 19th-century word and image."
    • Dispossession: A Novel of Few Words

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (Jonathan Cape (Vintage), 2015-09-01)
      A scholarly remediation of one of the later novels of Anthony Trollope.
    • Dispossession: Storyboard, Anaphora, Rhythm and Stage in a New Graphic Adaptation of Anthony Trollope’s 1878-79 Novel 'John Caldigate'.

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (International Association of Word and Image Studies Conference, Dundee., 2014-03-01)
      IAWIS/AIERTI Conference Dundee 2014 Session Proposal: Dr Simon Grennan, University of Chester (simon.grennan@zen.co.uk) Individual Papers Panel Session Theme: Visual Literacies / Literary Visualities (in the Digital Age) Session Title: ‘Graphic adaptation and historic literary fiction: re/vision, remediation and discovery.’ Although comic strip adaptations of historic literary fiction are commonplace, in the great majority they have been historically motivated either by pedagogy or by hagiography. The pedagogic approach assumes that narrative drawing is more accessible to children than text. The hagiographic approach assumes that the source text is an original to which adaptations must aspire by overcoming the limits imposed by their own media Increasingly, a number of comic strip adaptations of historic fiction have appeared to interrogate the process of adaptation from literary text to narrative drawing itself, turning the adaptation process into a method of enquiry into some of the central issues of both remediation, narrative drawing and historiography: the relationships between specific texts and new images and concepts of authenticity, record and narrative voice relative to history. Such approaches to the adaptation of historic novels make visible the ways in which the process of adaptation itself engenders a fuller understanding of historic texts and their production. Frequently, they visibly manipulate the reading experience through techniques of juxtaposition, anachronism and visual revision, prompting reflections upon the impact of diverse media on the practice of history, for example: Marcel Broodthaers 1969 ‘Un coup de dés jamais n’abolira le hansard’, Dino Battaglia’s adaptations of Maupassant stories and Catherine Anyango’s 2010 ‘Heart of Darkness’. This session will aim to focus in detail upon a) both the technical processes of adaptation, or the ways in which new technologies inform the development of approaches to historic texts, and b) upon the conceptual strategies and rationales of adaptors. As a related topic, it will also hope to discuss current trends in the understanding of the roles of contemporaneous illustration in historic literary fiction. The session’s central questions and consequent call for papers will focus upon i) comic strip adaptation’s rationalisation of visual equivalents for literary narrative voices, ii) upon the influence of moving image conventions on storyboards, points of view, pace and information management and iii) upon conceptions of time revealed in contemporary adaptations of nineteenth century novels in particular. Confirmed individual presenters: Professor Jan Baetens (KU Leuven) Dr Simon Grennan (Chester University) Frederik Van Dam (KU Leuven) Expressions of interest in the call for individual session papers has been made by: Emeritus Professor David Skilton (Cardiff University) Peter Wilkins (Douglas College, Vancouver) Dr Ian Hague (Comics Forum) A further call for individual session papers will be made.
    • ‘Dispossession’: uses of encumbrance and constraint in visualising Trollope’s style, in a new graphic adaptation of his 1878-79 novel ‘John Caldigate'.

      Grennan, Simon; University of Chester (KU Leuven, 2015-09-01)
      This paper will discuss my adaptation of Anthony Trollope’s John Caldigate (1878-79) as a new graphic novel, Dispossession and its French edition Courir deux lièvres. Trollope’s writing style formalises his approach to plot, succinctly tying style to genre. In the plot of John Caldigate, the narrator both consistently avoids making definitive statements about events and character traits and avoids presenting a definitive opinion. Although Trollope eschews visual description, the continual, rhythmic presentation of one opinion after another brings about a distinctive and relatively complex spaciotopia, in which the reader feels positioned relative to the diegesis. In retinoscopic terms, this could be described simply as a spaciotopia produced by continually repeating a limited number of changes in point of view. From an analysis of Trollope’s writing style emerges the question of style in the drawn adaptation, answers to which finalise the governing constraints of its drawing style: how does Dispossession employ and/or depict equivocation in the style of its facture, distinct from the depiction of the plot? More simply, the changes made to Trollope’s plot in the adaptation emerged according to principles extrapolated from the habits of contemporary readers. The paper will explore how important plot elements or absences, significant for Trollope’s readers in the 1870s, required alteration or transformation, in order to maintain or heighten the meaning of the plot for 21st century readers: the elision of characters, changes to names, the legal process of restitution after miscarriages of justice, the significance of a straw hat and, most visibly, the presentation of new aboriginal Australian characters and the use of the Wiradjuri language. Citing both positive and critical media reviews of Courir deux lièvres from earlier this year, the paper will finally suggest that these approaches to word/image adaptation in the context of markets for graphic novels in English and French negotiate existing terrain for understanding Trollope, by bringing new habits of reading to an experience of his work and to ideas of the nineteenth century.