Pencil It In: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and their Direct Comparison to Screen-printed Electrodes

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10034/620214
Title:
Pencil It In: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and their Direct Comparison to Screen-printed Electrodes
Authors:
Bernalte, Elena; Foster, Christopher W.; Brownson, Dale A. C.; Mosna, Morgane; Smith, Graham C.; Banks, Craig E.
Abstract:
We explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS) and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs) upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication), the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B) and the electrochemical properties of an array of batches (i.e, pencil boxes). Electrochemical characterisation of the PDEs, using different batches of HB grade pencils, is undertaken using several inner- and outer-sphere redox probes and is critically compared to screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and acetaminophen using PDEs, which are found to exhibit competitive limits of detection (3 ) upon comparison to SPEs. Nonetheless, it is important to note that a clear lack of reproducibility was demonstrated when utilising these PDEs fabricated using the HB pencils from different batches. We also explore the suitability and feasibility of a pencil-drawn reference electrode compared to screen-printed alternatives, to see if one can draw the entire sensing platform. This article reports a critical assessment of these PDEs against that of its screen-printed competitors, questioning the overall feasibility of PDEs’ implementation as a sensing platform.
Affiliation:
Manchester Metropolitain University (Foster, Brownson, Mosna, Banks), Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Bernalte), University of Chester (Smith)
Citation:
“Pencil It In: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and their Direct Comparison to Screen-printed Electrodes”, Elena Bernalte, Christopher W. Foster, Dale A.C. Brownson, Morgane Mosna, Graham C. Smith and Craig E. Banks, Biosensors, 6, 45 (2016)
Publisher:
MDPI
Journal:
Biosensors
Publication Date:
29-Aug-2016
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10034/620214
DOI:
10.3390/bios6030045
Additional Links:
http://www.mdpi.com/2079-6374/6/3/45
Type:
Article
Language:
en
ISSN:
2079-6374
Appears in Collections:
Natural Sciences

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorBernalte, Elenaen
dc.contributor.authorFoster, Christopher W.en
dc.contributor.authorBrownson, Dale A. C.en
dc.contributor.authorMosna, Morganeen
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Graham C.en
dc.contributor.authorBanks, Craig E.en
dc.date.accessioned2016-10-21T08:51:14Z-
dc.date.available2016-10-21T08:51:14Z-
dc.date.issued2016-08-29-
dc.identifier.citation“Pencil It In: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and their Direct Comparison to Screen-printed Electrodes”, Elena Bernalte, Christopher W. Foster, Dale A.C. Brownson, Morgane Mosna, Graham C. Smith and Craig E. Banks, Biosensors, 6, 45 (2016)en
dc.identifier.issn2079-6374-
dc.identifier.doi10.3390/bios6030045-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/620214-
dc.description.abstractWe explore the fabrication, physicochemical characterisation (SEM, Raman, EDX and XPS) and electrochemical application of hand-drawn pencil electrodes (PDEs) upon an ultra-flexible polyester substrate; investigating the number of draws (used for their fabrication), the pencil grade utilised (HB to 9B) and the electrochemical properties of an array of batches (i.e, pencil boxes). Electrochemical characterisation of the PDEs, using different batches of HB grade pencils, is undertaken using several inner- and outer-sphere redox probes and is critically compared to screen-printed electrodes (SPEs). Proof-of-concept is demonstrated for the electrochemical sensing of dopamine and acetaminophen using PDEs, which are found to exhibit competitive limits of detection (3 ) upon comparison to SPEs. Nonetheless, it is important to note that a clear lack of reproducibility was demonstrated when utilising these PDEs fabricated using the HB pencils from different batches. We also explore the suitability and feasibility of a pencil-drawn reference electrode compared to screen-printed alternatives, to see if one can draw the entire sensing platform. This article reports a critical assessment of these PDEs against that of its screen-printed competitors, questioning the overall feasibility of PDEs’ implementation as a sensing platform.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMDPIen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-6374/6/3/45en
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/en
dc.subjectpencil-drawn electrodesen
dc.subjectscreen-printed electrodesen
dc.subjectsensorsen
dc.subjectelectrochemistryen
dc.titlePencil It In: Exploring the Feasibility of Hand-drawn Pencil Electrochemical Sensors and their Direct Comparison to Screen-printed Electrodesen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentManchester Metropolitain University (Foster, Brownson, Mosna, Banks), Universidad de Extremadura, Badajoz (Bernalte), University of Chester (Smith)en
dc.identifier.journalBiosensorsen
dc.date.accepted2016-08-17-
or.grant.openaccessYesen
rioxxterms.funderunfundeden
rioxxterms.identifier.projectunfundeden
rioxxterms.versionAMen
rioxxterms.licenseref.startdate2016-08-29-
This item is licensed under a Creative Commons License
Creative Commons
All Items in ChesterRep are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.