Understanding the impact of cavitation on hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10034/553066
Title:
Understanding the impact of cavitation on hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range
Authors:
Price, Richard J.; Blazina, Damir; Smith, Graham C.; Davies, Trevor J.
Abstract:
Hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range (C8 - C26) have been treated with ultrasound at 20 kHz - a frequency sufficient to drive acoustic cavitation. The high temperatures experienced as a result of the implosion of fuel vapour bubbles are sufficient to produce pyrolytic degradation and dehydrogenation, as well as a growth mechanism that results in the formation of small particles that have similarities with the primary soot particles produced during diesel combustion. These nanosized particles agglomerate as a result of kinetically driven collisions during cavitation to form a dispersion of micron sized particles in the treated hydrocarbon. The particles are carbonaceous in character, being a mixture of amorphous and graphitic-like carbon. The mass of material produced increases with the C/H atomic ratio of the hydrocarbon undergoing cavitation and is decreased through the addition (1 - 3 %v/v) of low boiling paraffinic hydrocarbons, possibly as a result of lowering the temperature developed inside imploding cavities. Dispersions of microparticles contain equilibrated levels of nanoparticles. If sufficiently high numbers of these smaller primary particles are present they agglomerate due to thermally driven collisions during post-cavitation storage. When this happened a sharp rise in the number of 1 - 2 µm particles was seen after only a few days. Some evidence is presented for the behaviour of ultrasonically treated hydrocarbons being related to the degradation of diesel fuel exposed to hydrodynamic cavitation in the fuel systems of modern common rail direct injection diesel engines.
Affiliation:
Shell Global Solution ; Shell Global Solution ; University of Chester ; University of Chester
Citation:
Understanding the impact of cavitation on hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, Fuel, 2015, 156, pp. 30-39
Publisher:
Elsevier
Journal:
Fuel
Publication Date:
22-Apr-2015
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10034/553066
DOI:
10.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.026
Additional Links:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00162361; http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S001623611500424X
Type:
Article
Language:
en
Description:
NOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Fuel. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Fuel, 156, September 2015, pp. 30-39, http://dx/doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.026
ISSN:
0016-2361
EISSN:
1873-7153
Sponsors:
Shell Global Solutions
Appears in Collections:
Natural Sciences

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorPrice, Richard J.en
dc.contributor.authorBlazina, Damiren
dc.contributor.authorSmith, Graham C.en
dc.contributor.authorDavies, Trevor J.en
dc.date.accessioned2015-05-18T13:27:46Zen
dc.date.available2015-05-18T13:27:46Zen
dc.date.issued2015-04-22en
dc.identifier.citationUnderstanding the impact of cavitation on hydrocarbons in the middle distillate range, Fuel, 2015, 156, pp. 30-39en
dc.identifier.issn0016-2361en
dc.identifier.doi10.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.026en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/553066en
dc.descriptionNOTICE: this is the author’s version of a work that was accepted for publication in Fuel. Changes resulting from the publishing process, such as peer review, editing, corrections, structural formatting, and other quality control mechanisms may not be reflected in this document. Changes may have been made to this work since it was submitted for publication. A definitive version was subsequently published in Fuel, 156, September 2015, pp. 30-39, http://dx/doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2015.04.026en
dc.description.abstractHydrocarbons in the middle distillate range (C8 - C26) have been treated with ultrasound at 20 kHz - a frequency sufficient to drive acoustic cavitation. The high temperatures experienced as a result of the implosion of fuel vapour bubbles are sufficient to produce pyrolytic degradation and dehydrogenation, as well as a growth mechanism that results in the formation of small particles that have similarities with the primary soot particles produced during diesel combustion. These nanosized particles agglomerate as a result of kinetically driven collisions during cavitation to form a dispersion of micron sized particles in the treated hydrocarbon. The particles are carbonaceous in character, being a mixture of amorphous and graphitic-like carbon. The mass of material produced increases with the C/H atomic ratio of the hydrocarbon undergoing cavitation and is decreased through the addition (1 - 3 %v/v) of low boiling paraffinic hydrocarbons, possibly as a result of lowering the temperature developed inside imploding cavities. Dispersions of microparticles contain equilibrated levels of nanoparticles. If sufficiently high numbers of these smaller primary particles are present they agglomerate due to thermally driven collisions during post-cavitation storage. When this happened a sharp rise in the number of 1 - 2 µm particles was seen after only a few days. Some evidence is presented for the behaviour of ultrasonically treated hydrocarbons being related to the degradation of diesel fuel exposed to hydrodynamic cavitation in the fuel systems of modern common rail direct injection diesel engines.en
dc.description.sponsorshipShell Global Solutionsen
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00162361en
dc.relation.urlhttp://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S001623611500424Xen
dc.rightsArchived with thanks to Fuelen
dc.subjectcavitationen
dc.subjectmicroparticlesen
dc.subjectmiddle distillate hydrocarbonsen
dc.subjectnanoparticlesen
dc.subjectpyrolytic degradationen
dc.subjectultrasounden
dc.titleUnderstanding the impact of cavitation on hydrocarbons in the middle distillate rangeen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.identifier.eissn1873-7153en
dc.contributor.departmentShell Global Solution ; Shell Global Solution ; University of Chester ; University of Chesteren
dc.identifier.journalFuelen
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