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COVID-19, Inequality and Older People: Developing Community-Centred InterventionsThis paper considers the basis for a ‘community-centred’ response to COVID-19. It highlights the pressures on communities weakened by austerity, growing inequalities, and cuts to social infrastructure. This paper examines the disproportionate impact of the pandemic on low-income communities, whilst highlighting the extent to which they have been excluded from debates about policies to limit the spread of COVID-19. This paper examines four approaches to assist the inclusion of neighbourhoods in strategies to tackle the pandemic: promoting community participation; recruiting advocates for those who are isolated; creating a national initiative for supporting community-centred activity; and developing policies for the long-term. This paper concludes with questions which society and communities will need to address given the potential continuation of measures to promote physical distancing.
Action Imagery and Observation in Neurorehabilitation for Parkinson’s Disease (ACTION-PD): Development of a User-Informed Home Training Intervention to Improve Functional Hand MovementsBackground. Parkinson’s disease (PD) causes difficulties with hand movements, which few studies have addressed therapeutically. Training with action observation (AO) and motor imagery (MI) improves performance in healthy individuals, particularly when the techniques are applied simultaneously (AO + MI). Both AO and MI have shown promising effects in people with PD, but previous studies have only used these separately. Objective. This article describes the development and pilot testing of an intervention combining AO + MI and physical practice to improve functional manual actions in people with PD. Methods. The home-based intervention, delivered using a tablet computer app, was iteratively designed by an interdisciplinary team, including people with PD, and further developed through focus groups and initial field testing. Preliminary data on feasibility were obtained via a six-week pilot randomised controlled trial (ISRCTN 11184024) of 10 participants with mild to moderate PD (6 intervention; 4 treatment as usual). Usage and adherence data were recorded during training, and semistructured interviews were conducted with participants. Exploratory outcome measures included dexterity and timed action performance. Results. Usage and qualitative data provided preliminary evidence of acceptability and usability. Exploratory outcomes also suggested that subjective and objective performance of manual actions should be tested in a larger trial. The importance of personalisation, choice, and motivation was highlighted, as well as the need to facilitate engagement in motor imagery. Conclusions. The results indicate that a larger RCT is warranted, and the findings also have broader relevance for the feasibility and development of AO + MI interventions for PD and other conditions.
Overlapping regions of Caf20 mediate its interactions with the mRNA-5'cap-binding protein eIF4E and with ribosomes.By interacting with the mRNA 5' cap, the translation initiation factor eIF4E plays a critical role in selecting mRNAs for protein synthesis in eukaryotic cells. Caf20 is a member of the family of proteins found across eukaryotes termed 4E-BPs, which compete with eIF4G for interaction with eIF4E. Caf20 independently interacts with ribosomes. Thus, Caf20 modulates the mRNA selection process via poorly understood mechanisms. Here we performed unbiased mutagenesis across Caf20 to characterise which regions of Caf20 are important for interaction with eIF4E and with ribosomes. Caf20 binding to eIF4E is entirely dependent on a canonical motif shared with other 4E-BPs. However, binding to ribosomes is weakened by mutations throughout the protein, suggesting an extended binding interface that partially overlaps with the eIF4E-interaction region. By using chemical crosslinking, we identify a potential ribosome interaction region on the ribosome surface that spans both small and large subunits and is close to a known interaction site of eIF3. The function of ribosome binding by Caf20 remains unclear.
Optimization of competitive supply chains with retailers' horizontal cooperation and consumers' green preference.With the wider recognition of the concept of environmental protection and sustainable development, more and more manufacturers have begun to implement green manufacturing strategies. However, green development is a gradual process, and the coexistence of ordinary and green products is common. This paper examines the competition between ordinary products and green ones based on supply chains, and discusses the impact of retailers' horizontal cooperation on pricing, greenness, market demand, profit, and other related decisions and results. Model solutions and numerical experiments have shown that consumers' green preference (CGP) has a positive impact on the results of green products and negative effects on those of ordinary ones; however, the impact of competition intensity (CI) is more complex, and the trend tends to change if it exceeds a certain critical value. In general, cooperation encourages retailers to raise prices and make manufacturers lower wholesale prices, but the retail and wholesale prices of green products are always higher than the corresponding prices of ordinary ones. Market demand can be reduced due to cooperation, but it is conducive to strengthening green products' greenness. However, if CI exceeds a certain threshold, the greenness will be weakened by cooperation. Both retailers can benefit from cooperation easily and they always reach a win-win situation, but manufacturers suffer badly as a result. Nevertheless, when CI is weak, cooperation will bring a greater profit improvement to the whole chain of ordinary products; in this case, if a retailer is willing to compensate for a manufacturer's profit loss and help it benefit from cooperation, the manufacturer will encourage the retailer to cooperate horizontally with the green retailer, but the green chain will be seriously damaged. When CI is strong, the greenness of green products is not obvious enough, and cooperation can bring some chances to achieve a win-win situation for two chains; if the green retailer can obtain a larger share from cooperation under this scenario, it can also enable its manufacturer to obtain compensation and change the profit increment from negative to positive. From an overall perspective, when CI is very weak or very strong, horizontal cooperation is conducive to improving the profit of the entire supply chain competition system, but when CI is relatively flat, independent operation for each chain is more advantageous; if the competition status is stable and unchanged, independent competition will be superior to horizontal cooperation. [Abstract copyright: © 2021. The Author(s).]
Knowledge and competency standards for specialized cognitive behavior therapy for adult obsessive-compulsive disorder.Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability world-wide (World Health Organization, 2008). Treatment of OCD is a specialized field whose aim is recovery from illness for as many patients as possible. The evidence-based psychotherapeutic treatment for OCD is specialized cognitive behavior therapy (CBT, NICE, 2005, Koran and Simpson, 2013). However, these treatments are not accessible to many sufferers around the world. Currently available guidelines for care are deemed to be essential but insufficient because of highly variable clinician knowledge and competencies specific to OCD. The phase two mandate of the 14 nation International OCD Accreditation Task Force (ATF) created by the Canadian Institute for Obsessive Compulsive Disorders is development of knowledge and competency standards for specialized treatments for OCD through the lifespan deemed by experts to be foundational to transformative change in this field. This paper presents knowledge and competency standards for specialized CBT for adult OCD developed to inform, advance, and offer a model for clinical practice and training for OCD. During upcoming ATF phases three and four criteria and processes for training in specialized treatments for OCD through the lifespan for certification (individuals) and accreditation (sites) will be developed based on the ATF standards. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.]