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COVID-19 Presenting As Intussusception In Infants: a case report with literature reviewThe novel Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) first presented in Wuhan, China. The virus was able to spread throughout the world, causing a global health crisis. The virus spread widely in Jordan after a wedding party held in northern Jordan. In most cases of COVID-19 infection, respiratory symptoms are predominant. However, in rare cases the disease may present with non-respiratory symptoms. The presentation of COVID-19 as a case of intussusception in children is a strange and rare phenomenon. We present here a case of a two-and-a-half month old male baby who was brought to hospital due to fever, frequent vomiting, dehydration and blood in stool. He was diagnosed as intussusception. The child was tested for corona due to the large societal spread of the virus and because he was near his mother, who was suffering from symptoms similar to corona or seasonal flu (she did not conduct a corona test). Patient was treated without surgery and recovered quickly. The COVID-19 infection was without respiratory symptoms, and there was no need for the child to remain in hospital after treatment of intussusception. The relationship between viruses, mesenteric lymphoid hyperplasia, and intussusception is a confirmed relation. ACE2 is the key receptor required for SARA-COV-2 to enter the host cells. ACE2 has been also found in the brush border of the intestinal mucosa, as well as it is a key inflammatory regulator in the intestine. This may suggest that SARSA-COV-2 could invade the respiratory tract as well as gastrointestinal tract or both. Few case reports documented the presentation of COVID-19 as intussusception in children. In the light of the widespread of corona virus, performing COVID-19 tests for children with intussusception can help linking the two entities. Development of gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID19 positive children should raise concern about the development of intussusception.
Novel ultra-energy-efficient reversible designs of sequential logic quantum-dot cellular automata flip-flop circuitsQuantum-dot cellular automata (QCA) is a technological approach to implement digital circuits with exceptionally high integration density, high switching frequency, and low energy dissipation. QCA circuits are a potential solution to the energy dissipation issues created by shrinking microprocessors with ultra-high integration densities. Current QCA circuit designs are irreversible, yet reversible circuits are known to increase energy efficiency. Thus, the development of reversible QCA circuits will further reduce energy dissipation. This paper presents novel reversible and irreversible sequential QCA set/reset (SR), data (D), Jack Kilby (JK), and toggle (T) flip-flop designs based on the majority gate that utilizes the universal, standard, and efficient (USE) clocking scheme, which allows the implementation of feedback paths and easy routing for sequential QCA-based circuits. The simulation results confirm that the proposed reversible QCA USE sequential flip-flop circuits exhibit energy dissipation less than the Landauer energy limit. Irreversible QCA USE flip-flop designs, although having higher energy dissipation, sometimes have floorplan areas and delay times less than those of reversible designs; therefore, they are also explored. The trade-offs between the energy dissipation versus the area cost and delay time for the reversible and irreversible QCA circuits are examined comprehensively.
Promoting Junior School Students’ Anti-bullying Beliefs with the CATZ Cross-age Teaching Zone InterventionIn tackling the widespread problem of bullying victimisation, researchers have acknowledged the value of focusing on changing bullying-related beliefs and using peer-based interventions. In three studies (N = 419, 237 intervention and 182 controls), we tested the effectiveness of the CATZ cross-age teaching programme by inviting small groups of 11-year-olds to incorporate information supporting positive beliefs (concerning non-physical forms of bullying, the value of disclosing being bullied to adults, and helping victims) into a lesson they devised for themselves and to deliver that to small groups of 9-year-olds. Specifically, we examined if the intervention would promote that (i) non-physical forms of bullying are unacceptable (study 1), (ii) disclosing bullying to adults and getting the right kind of help have value and importance (study 2), and (iii) victims can be assisted in safe ways (study 3). Self-reports of nine specific aspects of these beliefs were collected from CATZ tutors and age-matched controls prior to and following the intervention, and at five-week follow-up in one study, using both open and closed questions. Results indicated significant positive effects of CATZ on all nine outcome variables, with mostly medium and high effect sizes. These findings support the use of CATZ to foster positive anti-bullying beliefs, and issues related to its wider uptake are discussed.
Surfing the Waves of Accountable Compassion: A qualitative study of the emerging trauma-informed culture within North Wales Youth Justice ServiceThe thesis describes a qualitative study of trauma-informed practice which draws on accounts of a sample of justice involved children and service providers in North Wales, in order to explore the practicalities of working within a trauma-informed paradigm and how it fits with key principles which exist within the Youth Justice Service (YJS). The study, which was theoretically informed by symbolic interactionism and hermeneutic phenomenology, used qualitative methods comprising semi-structured interviews with justice involved children as well as interviews and focus groups with service providers. The study findings indicate that there is a shift to moving towards working via a trauma-informed lens, and aims to embed trauma-informed practice into the fabric of the YJS. Certain elements within the YJS, namely the child-practitioner relationship, are more advanced with regard to being trauma-informed in comparison to other areas, some of which are external to the YJS. The thesis argues that in order to weave trauma-informed approaches and a culture of understanding into the identity of the YJS, consideration is required with regards to cultural hang-overs, stemming from previous practice, vicarious trauma and the position of relational practice. In conclusion, the thesis suggests that a trauma-informed cultural shift has many benefits for justice-involved children, not only in addressing their behaviour and the emotions potentially lurking behind it, but also in healing and helping to process past experiences. The experiences and contributions from participants in this study collectively advocate utilising a trauma-informed lens across the YJS. However, a cultural change requires careful management and consideration in order to protect staff, particularly from the imprint of trauma narratives and support children holistically. Where this is neglected, the path to trauma-informed could divert to trauma-organised.