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Perception of Spirituality among Substance Addicts with Incarceration Experience: A Phenomenological StudyThis paper examines the role of spirituality in a recovery context by drawing on qualitative research conducted at a residential recovery community in North Wales, United Kingdom. The study aimed to examine perceptions of spirituality among exprisoners and people identifying as in recovery from addiction. The researchers explored ideas of “spiritual coping” and “spiritual wellbeing” in terms of meaning, purpose, connectedness, forgiveness, and peace in addiction treatment programs influenced by 12-Step models, for instance, Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). Also, this paper focuses on both spiritual counseling services shaped by pre-determined meanings and values and secondly, on individuals’ perceptions about spirituality through the language of desires, needs, and expectations. The data for this research produced from five semi-structured interviews with male individuals who had recovered from their addiction and had practised some custodial life. To discover the common context of different perceptions of the language spirituality, the data was coded by the first and second loop encodings from the data analysis methods used. The central schemes that appear as “Spirituality in Experiences, Spirituality in Values, Spirituality as Meaning/Purpose of Life, Spirituality as Attachment, Spirituality as Coping Mechanism” have been evaluated within the framework of the concept of spirituality. In the conclusion of this study, it was observed that spirituality was used as a coping mechanism for buffering the sensation of hopelessness and powerlessness often experienced by people in active addiction.
Predictors of Individual Differences in Emerging Adult Theory of MindLittle is known about what factors are associated with emerging adult theory of mind (ToM). We predicted that childhood fantasy play (CFP), need for cognition (NfC), and fiction reading would be positive predictors due to their deliberative, perspective-taking nature while engagement with media and technology would be a negative predictor due to increased interpersonal distance. The best-fit mixed logit model ( N = 369) showed that CFP, texting frequency, and NfC were significant positive predictors while smartphone usage and preference for task switching were significant negative predictors. Email and phone call usage were contributing nonsignificant negative predictors. Our study extends previous findings regarding NfC and highlights the importance of CFP engagement for ToM beyond immediate childhood. Future research should investigate how subtly different media (e.g., texting vs. smartphone use) have differential predictive relationships with social cognition. Data and code are available at doi: 10.17605/OSF.IO/CBD9J.
The Association between Obesity and Poor Outcome after COVID-19 Indicates a Potential Therapeutic Role for MontelukastAbstract It is widely believed that infection with the SARS-CoV2 virus triggers a disproportionate immune response which causes a devastating systemic injury, particularly in individuals with obesity, itself a chronic, multi-organ inflammatory disease. Immune cells accumulate in visceral adipose tissue and together with paracrine adipocytes release a wide range of biologically active cytokines (including IL-1β, IL5, IL6 and IL8) that can result in both local, pulmonary and systemic inflammation. A more intense ‘cytokine storm’ is postulated as the mechanism behind the extreme immune response seen in severe COVID-19. It is striking how dangerous the combination of obesity and COVID-19 is, resulting in a greater risk of ICU admission and a higher mortality. Furthermore, patients from a BAME background appear to have increased mortality after SARS-CoV2 infection; they also have a higher prevalence of central obesity and its metabolic complications. In the absence of an effective vaccine, the therapeutic potential of immune-modulating drugs is a priority, but the development of new drugs is expensive and time-consuming. A more pragmatic solution would be to seek to repurpose existing drugs, particularly those that might suppress the heightened cytokine activity seen in obesity, the major risk factor for a poor prognosis in COVID-19. Montelukast is a cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist licensed to treat asthma and allergic rhinitis. It has been shown to diminish pulmonary response to antigen, tissue eosinophilia and IL-5 expression in inflammatory cells. It has also been shown to decrease elevated levels of IL-1β and IL8 in humans with viral upper respiratory tract infections compared with placebo-treated patients. In addition, in silico studies have demonstrated a high binding affinity of the montelukast molecule to the terminal site of the virus’s main protease enzyme which is needed for virus RNA synthesis and replication. Montelukast, which is cheap, safe and widely available would appear to have the potential to be an ideal candidate drug for clinical trials, particularly in early stage disease before irreparable tissue damage has already occurred. Hypothesis Through a direct anti-viral effect, or by suppression of heightened cytokine release in response to SARS-CoV2, montelukast will reduce the severity of immune-mediated multiorgan damage resulting from COVID-19, particularly in patients with central obesity and metabolic syndrome.
Optimisation and Management of Energy Generated by a Multifunctional MFC-Integrated Composite Chassis for Rail VehiclesWith the advancing trend towards lighter and faster rail transport, there is an increasing interest in integrating composite and advanced multifunctional materials in order to infuse smart sensing and monitoring, energy harvesting and wireless capabilities within the otherwise purely mechanical rail structures and the infrastructure. This paper presents a holistic multiphysics numerical study, across both mechanical and electrical domains, that describes an innovative technique of harvesting energy from a piezoelectric micro fiber composites (MFC) built-in composite rail chassis structure. Representative environmental vibration data measured from a rail cabin have been critically leveraged here to help predict the actual vibratory and power output behaviour under service. Time domain mean stress distribution data from the Finite Element simulation were used to predict the raw AC voltage output of the MFCs. Conditioned power output was then calculated using circuit simulation of several state-of-the-art power conditioning circuits. A peak instantaneous rectified power of 181.9 mW was obtained when eight-stage Synchronised Switch Harvesting Capacitors (SSHC) from eight embedded MFCs were located. The results showed that the harvested energy could be sufficient to sustain a self-powered structural health monitoring system with wireless communication capabilities. This study serves as a theoretical foundation of scavenging for vibrational power from the ambient state in a rail environment as well as to pointing to design principles to develop regenerative and power neutral smart vehicles.