Effectiveness of cooling gel pads and ice packs on perineal pain

Hdl Handle:
http://hdl.handle.net/10034/88513
Title:
Effectiveness of cooling gel pads and ice packs on perineal pain
Authors:
Navviba, Shahin; Abedian, Zahra; Steen, Mary
Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a randomised controlled trial undertaken at the Hazrat Ommolbanin University Maternity Hospital in Mashhad, Iran which investigated the effectiveness of localised cooling treatments to alleviate perineal trauma. From October 2005 to February 2006, 121 primiparous women who were at term and had an episiotomy were randomly recruited to one of three treatment groups (Group 1 - no localised cooling, Group 2 - Ice pack, Group 3 - cooling gel pad). The intensity of pain, wound healing and women’s satisfaction levels were the main outcomes measured. The intensity of pain was measured by a (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) (0-10) and wound healing was evaluated by the REEDA scale within 4 hours of episiotomy repair, at Day 1, Day 2, Day 5 and finally at Day 10. The usage of oral analgesia (acetaminophen) was measured at Day 10. Women’s satisfaction levels with oral analgesia and localised cooling treatments were also assessed at Day 10 by a NRS (0-10). There was evidence that localised cooling treatments are effective at alleviating perineal pain which was in favour of the cooling gel pad group. A statistical significant difference was reported at 4 hours (p=0.003) Day 2 (p=0.004) and at Day 10 (p=0.044). At Day 1 and Day 5 there was evidence of a reduction in the intensity of pain but this did not reach a statistical significant difference. A reduction in the usage of oral analgesia (acetaminophen) was reported in favour of the cooling gel pad group (p<0.001). Women’s satisfaction levels with oral analgesia were similar within the three treatment groups but a higher level of satisfaction when assessing localised treatment was reported by the cooling gel pad group (p<0.001). Wound healing rates were also reported to be better in the cooling gel pad group when compared to the other two groups(p<0.001). In conclusion, treatments to alleviate perineal pain without any adverse affects on wound healing and women’s views are important aspects of midwifery care. This trial has demonstrated evidence that localised cooling of the perineum reduces the intensity of pain, women were more satisfied when applying cooling gel pads and this treatment appeared to assist in wound healing.
Affiliation:
Zahedan University of Medical Science Nursing & Midwifery, Mashhad Iran ; Faculty of Health & Social Care, University of Chester
Citation:
British Journal of Midwifery, 17(11), pp. 724-729
Publisher:
Mark Allen
Journal:
British Journal of Midwifery
Issue Date:
Nov-2009
URI:
http://hdl.handle.net/10034/88513
Additional Links:
http://www.britishjournalofmidwifery.com/cgi-bin/go.pl/library/article.html?uid=45030;article=BJM_17_11_724_729; http://www.britishjournalofmidwifery.com
Type:
Article
Language:
en
Description:
This article is not available through ChesterRep.
ISSN:
0969-4900
Appears in Collections:
Health and Social Care

Full metadata record

DC FieldValue Language
dc.contributor.authorNavviba, Shahinen
dc.contributor.authorAbedian, Zahraen
dc.contributor.authorSteen, Maryen
dc.date.accessioned2009-12-22T16:38:02Z-
dc.date.available2009-12-22T16:38:02Z-
dc.date.issued2009-11-
dc.identifier.citationBritish Journal of Midwifery, 17(11), pp. 724-729en
dc.identifier.issn0969-4900-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10034/88513-
dc.descriptionThis article is not available through ChesterRep.en
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of this paper is to report the findings of a randomised controlled trial undertaken at the Hazrat Ommolbanin University Maternity Hospital in Mashhad, Iran which investigated the effectiveness of localised cooling treatments to alleviate perineal trauma. From October 2005 to February 2006, 121 primiparous women who were at term and had an episiotomy were randomly recruited to one of three treatment groups (Group 1 - no localised cooling, Group 2 - Ice pack, Group 3 - cooling gel pad). The intensity of pain, wound healing and women’s satisfaction levels were the main outcomes measured. The intensity of pain was measured by a (Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) (0-10) and wound healing was evaluated by the REEDA scale within 4 hours of episiotomy repair, at Day 1, Day 2, Day 5 and finally at Day 10. The usage of oral analgesia (acetaminophen) was measured at Day 10. Women’s satisfaction levels with oral analgesia and localised cooling treatments were also assessed at Day 10 by a NRS (0-10). There was evidence that localised cooling treatments are effective at alleviating perineal pain which was in favour of the cooling gel pad group. A statistical significant difference was reported at 4 hours (p=0.003) Day 2 (p=0.004) and at Day 10 (p=0.044). At Day 1 and Day 5 there was evidence of a reduction in the intensity of pain but this did not reach a statistical significant difference. A reduction in the usage of oral analgesia (acetaminophen) was reported in favour of the cooling gel pad group (p<0.001). Women’s satisfaction levels with oral analgesia were similar within the three treatment groups but a higher level of satisfaction when assessing localised treatment was reported by the cooling gel pad group (p<0.001). Wound healing rates were also reported to be better in the cooling gel pad group when compared to the other two groups(p<0.001). In conclusion, treatments to alleviate perineal pain without any adverse affects on wound healing and women’s views are important aspects of midwifery care. This trial has demonstrated evidence that localised cooling of the perineum reduces the intensity of pain, women were more satisfied when applying cooling gel pads and this treatment appeared to assist in wound healing.en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherMark Allenen
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.britishjournalofmidwifery.com/cgi-bin/go.pl/library/article.html?uid=45030;article=BJM_17_11_724_729en
dc.relation.urlhttp://www.britishjournalofmidwifery.comen
dc.subjectperineal painen
dc.subjectlocalised coolingen
dc.subjectfemepadsen
dc.subjectwomen's viewsen
dc.subjectepisiotomyen
dc.subjectwound healingen
dc.titleEffectiveness of cooling gel pads and ice packs on perineal painen
dc.typeArticleen
dc.contributor.departmentZahedan University of Medical Science Nursing & Midwifery, Mashhad Iran ; Faculty of Health & Social Care, University of Chesteren
dc.identifier.journalBritish Journal of Midwiferyen
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